Plant Design and Operations

Plant Design and Operations book cover

Plant Design and Operations (PDO) provides practical guidance on the design, operation, and maintenance of process facilities. This book complements Process Risk and Reliability Management (PRRM). PRRM describes management principles and methods; PDO shows how those methods can be applied. For example, Chapter 11 of PRRM is entitled "Emergency Management". Chapter 6 of PDO contains information to do with the Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) used by emergency responders, and Chapter 9 is to do with Firefighting.

The book is based on years of hands-on experience gathered during the design and operation of a wide range of facilities in many different types of industry including chemicals, refining, offshore oil and gas, and pipelines. The book helps managers, engineers, operators, and maintenance specialists with advice and guidance that can be used right away in working situations.

For example:

  • Chapter 3 to do with Energy Control Procedures describes seven levels of positive isolation - ranging from a closed block valve all the way to double block and bleed with line break.
  • Chapter 10 - Safety in Design - describes topics such as area classification, fire protection, stairways and platforms, fixed ladders, emergency showers, lighting and alarms.
  • A logical, practical guide to maintenance task organization is provided in Chapter 2 from conducting a Job Hazards Analysis to the issue of a work permit, and to the shutdown and isolation of equipment.
  • Common hazards, such as problems to do with fluid flow, high pressure, corrosion and power failure are discussed in Chapter 17. Other areas covered by the book include security, equipment, and transportation.

Ordering Information

This book can be ordered directly from the publisher Elsevier, or from Amazon and Barnes & Noble. It is also available in ebook form at ScienceDirect.

Chapters

Chapter 1 - Operations 

Introduction 
Professional Advice 
Regulations, Standards and Guidance 
   Regulations 
   Industry Standards 
      ISO 
      ANSI 
   Guidance Documents 
Units of Measurement 
Risk Reduction 
   Risk Analysis  
   Quantification 
Flammable and Combustible Materials
   Flammable Range 
   Flammable Limits 
   Flash Point 
   Combustible Liquids 
      Class II Liquids 
      Class III Liquids
   Flammable Liquids 
   Ignition Sources 
Area Classification 
Housekeeping 
   General Neatness 
   Proper Placement 
   Grass and Brush 
   Equipment and Piping 
   Storage and Handling of Flammable Liquids 
      Regulations and Standards 
      Handling Requirements 
Non-Process Operations 
   Outside Storage 
   Coal and Coke Storage 
   Drum Storage 
   Drainage 
   Fire Protection and Prevention 
   Cylinders 
   Loading Racks 
Simultaneous Operations (SIMOPs) 
   Managing SIMOPs 
   SIMOPS Matrix 
   Conducting the SIMOPs 
      Kick-Off Meeting 
      Communication Meetings 
   Close Out 
Examples 
   Example 1 - Facility Design 
   Example 2 - Heat Exchanger 

Chapter 2 - Maintenance and Inspection

Introduction
Types of Maintenance
   Repair Maintenance
   Condition-Based Maintenance
   Scheduled Maintenance
   Reliability-Centered Maintenance 
Maintenance Task Organization 
   Step 1 - Plan the Work 
   Step 2 - Conduct a Job Hazards Analysis 
   Step 3 - Issue a Work Permit 
   Step 4 - Shutdown and Isolate Equipment 
   Step 5 - First Break 
   Step 6 - Perform the Work 
   Step 7 - Close Out the Work
   Step 8 - Handover to Operations
      Readiness Review 
      Mechanical Completion 
Pressure Tests 
   Maximum Allowable Working Pressure 
   Test Medium 
   Tightness Tests
   Strength Tests 
Testing Procedures 
      Hydrostatic (Liquid) 
      Pneumatic (Gas)
      Installing Blinds 
   Pressure Test Manual 
On-Line Cleaning and Repair 
Inspection 
   Regulations and Standards 
   Inspection Frequency 
   Inspection Records 
   Risk-Based Inspection 
      Analyze Risk 
      Determine Costs 
      Allocate Resources 

Chapter 3 - Energy Control Procedures

Introduction 
Regulations and Standards 
   OSHA 29 CFR 1910.119 
   OSHA 29 CFR 1910.146 
   API 2015 
   API 2026 
   API 2217A 
   ANSI Z117.1 
Removal of the Hazard 
Equipment and Piping 
   Venting and Draining Requirements 
   Manways 
   Electrical Equipment 
   Mechanical Equipment 
   Pipe Plugs 
Minimizing Contact with Air 
   Limiting Oxygen Concentration 
   Blanketing 
   Tank Filling and Emptying 
   Heavy Sludge Deposits 
   Spills and Overflows 
   Flame Propagation through Drains 
   Catching Samples 
   Air-Blowing of Hydrocarbon Lines 
Positive Isolation 
   Level 1 - Closed Valve 
      Control Valves 
      Blow-Down Valves 
      Shut-Down Valves 
   Level 2 - Closed Valve with Open Bleeder 
   Level 3 - Double Block and Bleed 
   Level 4 - Block and Bleed with Line Break 
   Level 5 - Block, Bleed and Spectacle Blind 
   Level 6 - Double Block and Bleed with Blind 
   Level 7 - Double Block and Bleed with Line Break 
Lockout / Tagout 
   Car Seals 
   Group Lockout 
   Lockboxes
   Padlocks 
   Tags 
   Removing Locks and Tags 
Electrical Isolation
Administrative Controls
Work Permits 
   General Work Permits 
      Issuance of Permits 
      Changes in Conditions
      Multiple Work Permits 
   Hot Work Permits
Confined Space Entry 
   Types of Space 
      Non-Hazardous Space 
      Hazardous Space 
   The Entry Permit 
   Personnel
      Entrant 
      Supervisor 
      Manway Attendant
      Gas Tester 
      Rescue Team 
   Preparation 
      Job Hazards Analysis 
      Isolate the Equipment 
      Drain Liquids, Purge and Ventilate 
   Test 
Tie-Ins 
Hot Tapping 
   Plugged Lines 
   Prevention of Pluggage 
   Unplugging a Line 
   Mechanical 
   Differential Pressure 
      Fluid Selection
      Steam 
      Compressed Gas 

Chapter 4 - Occupational Safety

Introduction 
Measuring Performance
Safety Manual 
Behavior Based Safety 
   Observed Hazard Card 
   Five by Five Policy
Lone Worker Policy 
Incident Reporting 
   Vehicle Incidents 
   Near Misses 
Portable Gas Detectors 
Machinery Safety 
Fall Protection 
   Definitions 
   Fall Protection System 
   Fall Arrest System Equipment 
Dropped Objects 
Compressed Gas Cylinders 
Overhead Power Lines 
Cranes and Rigging 
   Lifting Precautions 
   Crane Operation 

Chapter 5 - Chemicals

Introduction 
Fluid Categories 
Material Safety Data Sheets 
Global Harmonization System
The Safety Diamond 
Exposure Limits 
   Emergency Response Planning Guidelines (ERPGs) 
   Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health 
   Permissible Exposure Limits (PEL) 
   Threshold Limit Values (TLV) 
   Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL) 
Benzene 
Hydrogen Fluoride 
   Unloading 
   KOH Beds 
   Dedicated Flare 
Sulfur Dioxide 
Hydrogen Sulfide 
   Toxicity 
   Flammability 
   Location of Monitors 
   Corrosion 
Chlorine 
Carbon Monoxide 
Carbon Dioxide 
Nitrogen 
Lead 

Chapter 6 - Personal Protective Equipment

Introduction 
Employer Responsibility 
Regulations and Standards
Clothing 
   Flame Resistant Clothing 
   Impervious Clothing 
   Laboratory Clothing 
   Emergency PPE 
      Firefighter Protective Clothing 
      Proximity Suits 
Respiratory Protection
   Fixed Breathing Air Systems 
   Respirators 
      Air-Purifying Respirators 
      Supplied Air Respirators 
      Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBAs) 
      Chemical Canister Rebreathers 
      Disposable Respirators 
      Use of Respirators 
Head Protection 
   Additional Equipment / Markers 
   Color Schemes 
   Maintenance and Storage 
Hand Protection
Foot Protection 
Eye Protection 
   Safety Glasses 
   Chemical Goggles 

Chapter 7 - Health and Industrial Hygiene 

Introduction 
Employee Access to Records 
Asbestos 
Noise 
   Regulations and Standards 
      MSHA 30 CFR 62 
      OSHA 1926.101 - Hearing Protection 
      OSHA 1910.95 - Occupational Noise Exposure
      NIOSH: Noise and Hearing Loss Protection 
      EEMUA 
   Definitions 
      Decibel 
      Time-Weighted Average (TWA) 
      Hertz 
      Noise Dose 
      Threshold Limit Value (TLV) 
   Noise Limits 
      Continuous Noise
      Intermittent or Fluctuating Noise 
   Noise Control 
      Remove the Source 
      Modify the Source 
      Relocation / Barriers 
      Enclose Equipment
      Hearing Protection 
      Administrative Controls
   Vibration Control
   Industry Issues 
NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material)
   Regulations and Standards
   TENORM 
   Exposure 
   Treatment 
   Water / Dry Blasting 
   Safe Limits 
   Protective Measures 
Lifting 
Heat Stress
   Heat Index
   Types of Heat Stress
   Heat Stress Factors 
   Heat Stress Prevention
Cold Stress 
   Types of Cold Stress 
   Equivalent Chill Temperature 
   Controlling Cold Stress 
Radiant Heat 
Food and Galley Hygiene 
   Methods of Preservation and Treatment
   Treating Contamination 
   Storage and Cooking Temperatures
   Facilities and Equipment 
Alcohol and Drug Policy 
   Coverage
   Affected Participants 
   Applicants for Employment
   Testing
   Contractors 

Chapter 8 - Human Factors and Ergonomics 

Introduction 
Process Safety Management 
Human Error 
   Errors of Intent
   Errors of Action
      Slips
      Mistakes
      Fixation 
      Error in an Emergency 
   THERP 
Ergonomics 
   Muculoskeletal Disorders
      Fix the Person
      Fit the Person to the Task
      Change the Person
      Change Performance
      Change the Work or Workplace
   Work Stations 
Human Factors on Projects 
   Phase I - Concept Selection 
   Phase II - Preliminary Engineering
   Phase III - Detailed Engineering 
Control Rooms 
Valve Criticality Analysis 
   Category 1 
   Category 2
   Category 3
Signs 
   Regulations and Standards 
   Types of Sign 
      Prohibition 
      Mandatory Action 
      Warning 
      Safe Condition 
      Fire Safety 
   Labeling 
   Color Coding 
      Exposed Piping
      Hoses 

Chapter 9 - Firefighting

Introduction 
Regulations and Standards 
Principles of Fire Fighting 
   Remove the Fuel Source 
   Consequence and Likelihood
   Safeguards
   Single Fire Concept 
   Fire Zones 
Fire Water
   Water Capacity and Rates
   Deluge Systems
   Sources of Fire Water
   Testing
   Fire Water Pumps and Drivers
      Jockey Pumps
      Main Fire Pumps 
   Fixed Water Spray Systems 
   Automatic Sprinkler Systems
   Monitors / Hose Carts
   Fire Water Distribution System
      Materials of Construction 
      Layout
      Deluge Valves
      Hydrants
   Other Firefighting Media
      Halon
      Steam
      Foam Systems
      Carbon Dioxide
      Earth-Moving Equipment
   Underground Firewater Systems
Portable Fire Extinguishers
   Location
   Types
      Water Extinguishers
      Carbon Dioxide Extinguishers
      Dry Chemical Extinguishers
Training 

Chapter 10 - Safety in Design 

Introduction 
Units of Measurement 
Fire Protection
   Fireproofing 
   Passive Fire Protection
   Fireproofing Materials 
   Fireproofing Insulation 
Stairways, Ramps and Platforms 
   Regulations and Standards 
   Terminology 
   Spiral / Winding Stairs 
   Landings
   Design Load
   Stair Rails
   Stair Treads
   Ramps
Fixed Ladders
   Guidance
   Safety Cages and Gates 
   Rungs and Stringers 
   Intermediate Platforms 
   Work Platforms and Walkways 
      Handrails and Toeboards
      Tank Gauging Platforms 
      Connected Tanks 
Emergency Showers and Eyewashes 
   Regulations and Standards 
   Risk Management 
   Release Points and Location
   Safety Shower Design 
      Flow Rates and Pattern
      Visibility and Accessibility 
      Alarms 
      Electrical Area 
      Freeze Protection 
      Heat Protection
      Enclosures 
   Using the Shower 
   Inspection 
   Eye-Wash Units 

Chapter 11 - Siting and Layout

Introduction
Regulations and Standards
Siting
Layout 
Spacing 
   Process Equipment
   Property Lines
Blocks and Roads
   Routine Access and Egress
   Firefighting Access
   Hazardous Chemical Areas
   Secondary Containment
   Drainage 
Equipment
   Vessels
   Pumps
   Hydrocarbon Storage Tanks
   Compressors / Compressor Drivers
   Heat Exchangers
   Air Fin Coolers
   Boilers and Steam Generators
   Cooling Towers 
   Fired Equipment
   Equipment Stacking 
   Air Intakes 
Piping and Valves
Utilities
   Instruments and Cables
   Electrical Substations
   Bare-Wire Electric Power Lines
Buildings
   Occupied Buildings 
   Electrical Rooms/Substations
   Pressurized Enclosures
   Process Buildings
   Temporary Buildings
   Control Buildings
   Control Laboratories / Analyzer Buildings
   Warehouses
   Inside Storage 
   Operator Shelters
   Electrical Equipment Buildings
   Non-Process Buildings
Loading and Unloading
Emergency Equipment
   Process Isolation Valves
   Emergency Stations
   Hydrants and Monitors
Fire and Gas Detection
   Regulations and Standards
   Layout of Detectors
   Responses
   Fire Detection
      Flammable Gas Detection
      Fire / Flame Detection
      Heat Detection
      Fusible Links
      Smoke Detection
      Ultrasonic Detectors 
      Closed-Circuit Television
   Toxic Gas Detection
Manual Alarm Call Points 
Offshore Facilities
   Safe Areas 
   Operations
   Emergency Evacuation and Rescue
   Temporary Refuge
   Wellbay Area
   Drilling Rigs 
   Pipeline Equipment
   Fire Protection / Fire and Gas Detection
   Helidecks
   Transfer Areas
   Piping 
   Rotating Equipment 

Chapter 12 - Equipment

Introduction
Pressure Vessels
   Regulations and Standards
   Factory Acceptance Tests (FAT)
   Spare Parts
   Vessels under Vacuum
   Reflux Vessels
   Small Pipe Connections
Storage Tanks
   Fixed Roof Tanks
   Floating Roof Tanks
Pumps
   Pump Casing
   Seals and Packing
   Minimum Flow Bypass
   Pump Isolation
   Safety Issues
Compressors
   Liquid Knockout on the Compressor Suction
   Relief Valves
   Compressor Isolation
   Shutdown and Alarm Systems
Heat Exchangers
   Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers
   Air-Cooled Exchangers
   Cooling Towers
Fired Heaters
   Regulations and Standards
   Startup of Fired Heaters
   Air Preheaters
   Fired Heater Burnout
Boilers
Internal Combustion Engines
   Starter Systems
   Intake, Exhaust and Fuel Systems 
Electrical Equipment
   Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters

Chapter 13 - Piping and Valves

Introduction 
Piping
   Materials
   Insulation
   Gaskets
   Threaded Piping
   Thermal Expansion
   Identification and Labeling of Pipes
   Testing and Inspection
Blinds
   Line Blinds
   Spectacle Blinds
Valves
   Block Valves
   Valve Seat Material
   Self-Closing Valves
   Check Valves
   Emergency Isolation Valves
   Excess Flow Valves
   Trapped Liquids
   Plugs
Pressure Relief Devices
   Design Parameters
   Regulations and Standards
   Pressure Safety Relief Valves
   Pilot-Operated Pressure Relief Valves
   Thermal Relief Valves
   Discharge Piping
   Testing and Inspection
   Rupture Disks
   Hatches / Doors
Flame Arrestors
   Thermal Flame Arrestors
   Detonation Arrestors 
   Water Seal-Type Flame Arrestors
   Velocity-Type Flame Arrestors
Flares
   Engineering Standards
   Types of Flare
   Smokeless Operation
   Location of Flares 

Chapter 14 - Safety Instrumentation

Introduction
Regulations and Standards
   IEC 61511
   IEC 61508
Alarms
   Alarm Design
   Alarm Management
Safety Instrumented Systems
   Safety Integrity Level
      Design
      Quantitative Analysis
      Testing and Inspection
   Emergency Shutdown
HIPPS 

Chapter 15 - Transportation

Introduction 
Regulations and Standards 
Road Vehicles
   Vacuum Trucks
   All-Terrain Vehicles
Loading / Unloading
   General Procedures
   Control Measures
   Bonding
   Switch Loading
   Tank/Rail Cars
   Additives
Marine Transport
   Personnel Transfer Baskets
   Cargo Baskets
   Rigid Frame Baskets
Helicopters
   Guidance
      Personnel Movement
      Air Turbulence
      Rescue 
   Regulations and Standards 

Chapter 16 - Security

Introduction
Regulations and Standards 
Types of Attack
   Members of the Public
      Vandalism
      Theft 
      Activists 
   Sabotage 
   Terrorism 
      Visible Security 
      Population Density
      High Profile
Security Vulnerability Analyses
   Rings of Protection
   Cybersecurity
Managing Security 
   Culture 
   Inherent Safety
   Access Security 
   Personnel Screening 
   Equipment Modifications 
Response to a Threatening Call 

Chapter 17 - Common Hazards 

Introduction 
Process Hazards 
   High Flow
   Low / No Flow
   Reverse Flow 
   Misdirected Flow
   High Pressure
   High Temperature
      Blocked-In Pump
      Polymerization
      External Fire
   Low Pressure
   Low Temperature
   High Level
   Wrong Composition
   Corrosion
   Chemical Embrittlement
   Strong Oxidizers
   Static Electricity
Hazards of Utilities 
   Common Cause Failure
   Process Contamination
   Electrical Power Failure
   Nitrogen
   Reverse Flow to a Utility Header
   Survivability of Utilities
Hazards of Water
   Water in Hydrocarbon Tanks
   Water in Very Hot Liquid
   Water and Firefighting
Hazards of Steam
   Steaming Vessels during Turnaround
   Reboiler Leak 
   Wet Steam
Hazards of Ice 
   Line Freezing
   Hydrates 
Hazards of Compressed Gas
   Gas Cylinders
   Pigging Incident
Hazards of Air 
   Flammable Mixture
   Blowing a Line Clear
   Hazards of External Events
      Flooding
      Lightning
      Earthquakes
Hazards of Equipment and Instruments
   Furnace Firing
   Fired Heater Burnout
   Multiple Uses of Equipment
   Distributed Control Systems
Hazards of Piping, Valves and Hoses 
   Piping 
      Pipe Class Transition
      Hydraulic Hammer
      Pig Launchers and Receivers
      Pressure in Relief Headers
      Overload of Overhead Vacuum Lines
      Underground Piping 
      Vents and Bleeders 
   Hoses
      Hoses and Truck Pull-Away 
      Hose Run Over 
      Hose Failure 
      Backflow Preventor 
      Temporary Connection 
Valves 
   Block Valves below Relief Valves 
   Fail-Safe Control Valves 
   Shared Relief Valve 
   SDV Bypass

Author

Ian Sutton

Release date

2014-10-10

Imprint

Gulf Professional Publishing

Print Book ISBN

9780323299640

Pages

408