Equipment Piping Process Safety Management

Process safety programs require that all equipment be designed, operated and maintained to the highest standards. In practical terms this requirement means that if the equipment and piping always retains its integrity, i.e., if it does not leak, then then highly hazardous materials will not be released. (The term used by OSHA — Mechanical Integrity — is too limiting; integrity programs should incorporate instrumentation and other non-mechanical items. The phrase ‘Asset Integrity’ is a better choice.)

Piping and valves have their own topic page.

Equipment Covered

The following is a list of the typical equipment covered by a process safety asset integrity program.

  • Pressure Vessels and Columns
  • Storage Tanks
  • Pumps
  • Compressors
  • Turbines
  • Heat Exchangers
  • Air-Cooled Exchangers
  • Cooling Towers
  • Fired Heaters
  • Flares / Blowdown
  • Boilers
  • Internal Combustion Engines
  • Electrical Equipment
  • Buildings

Regulations, Codes and Standards

There are many regulations, codes and standards to do with the mechanical integrity element of process safety management programs. Some of the key standards-setting bodies are:

  • American Chemistry Council / Responsible Care®
  • American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
  • American Petroleum Institute (API)
  • American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
  • International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
  • National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)

In the United States important process safety management regulations are published by:

  • The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
  • The Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) 
  • The Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE)

Articles and Safety Moments

Articles, safety moments and other publications are listed below.
 


You are welcome to use this Safety Moment in your workplace. But there are restrictions — please read Use of Safety Moments.

Copyright © Ian Sutton. 2018. All Rights Reserved.

Safety Moment #53: Slug Catchers

The fluids flowing through many pipelines are two phase, i.e., a mixture of liquid and gas. Ideally the two phases separate out with the liquid at the bottom section of the pipe. The two phases flow together to a processing facility that separates the two phases. In practice, however, the two phases often travel at different rates which means that they can form slugs whereby the composition of the stream at different sections is almost all liquid or almost all vapor.

Stairways and Ladders

The material in this article is extracted from Chapter 2 of the 2nd edition of book Plant Design and Operations.


When developing the layout for a facility it is very important to ensure that personnel can move around quickly and safely using stairways, ladders, platforms and ramps. They should also be able to use the stairways and ladders to move maintenance equipment and tools, as needed and also to evacuate the facility during an emergency.

Lockout Tagout

Lockout / tagout systems are routinely used to protect workers when they are working with or close to hazardous systems. They are typically used in conjunction with the other isolation methods. Once a switch or valve is in the correct position it is locked so that it cannot be moved, and a 'Do Not Operate' tag is attached to it. (Valves are often chained in place, with the lock being used to secure the chain such that the valve handle cannot be moved.)