Offshore Safety Management

Offshore Safety Management

This 352 page book by Ian Sutton provides a comprehensive description of how safety can be managed in the offshore oil and gas industries. It also provides extensive detail on Safety and Environmental Management Systems (SEMS), API's RP 75 - Safety and Environmental Program (SEMP) and Safety Cases.

The production of offshore oil and gas creates many hazards. The danger of fires and explosions is always present, weather conditions can be very harsh, produced gas can contain the highly toxic hydrogen sulfide (H2S), the rigs and platforms are crowded with equipment and machinery, and - if there is an accident - there are few places to which to escape.

Therefore, in order to keep these facilities safe, and to protect the environment, companies put in place comprehensive Safety Management Systems (SMS). This book describes how such systems are developed and implemented.

This book helps executives, managers and technical professionals understand the principles of Offshore Safety. But the book goes beyond that - detailed guidance is provided on the development and implementation of a SEMS (Safety and Environmental Management System) program and Safety Cases.

The book describes risk management techniques and the application of process safety management principles to offshore facilities.

This first chapter provides an overview of safety management in the offshore oil and gas industry. Trends within the industry are discussed, along with an assessment of the impact of the Deepwater Horizon incident. A description of the different types of safety — occupational, process and technical — is provided, along with a description of Safety Management Systems.

A theme of this book is that the principles of risk management apply to many types of industry. Nevertheless each industry does have its unique features. Some of those to do with offshore safety are discussed in this chapter. Also discussed are some of the differences between production and drilling.

The development of safety systems is largely driven by lessons learned from incidents — particularly catastrophic events. This chapter provides an overview of some of the incidents that have led to the development of new offshore safety standards and techniques. In addition to describing important offshore incidents, three events from other industries are also described because of the impact that they had on all industrial safety management programs.

 

Ordering Information

This book can be ordered directly from the publisher Elsevier, or from Amazon and Barnes & Noble. The chapters are available in ebook form at ScienceDirect.

Chapters

Chapter 1 - Risk Management

Introduction
Value of Safety Management Systems
Structure of this Book
Industry Trends
Impact of Deepwater Horizon
Safety Management Systems
   1. Facility Description
   2. Technical Information
   3. Risk Assessment
   4. Risk Acceptance
   5. Report
   6. Audit
Historical Background
   Offshore
   Onshore
Occupational, Process and Technical Safety
   Occupational Safety
   Process Safety Management
      OSHA's PSM Standard
      SEMP and SEMS
      The Baker Report
      The Incident Triangle
   Technical Safety
Risk Management
   Perception of the Consequence Term
   Performance Based / Prescriptive Program
   Acceptable Risk
      Uncertainty
      Cost Benefit Analysis
      Risk Reduction
   Risk Matrices
      Consequence Matrix
      Frequency Matrix
      Risk Matrix
   As Low as Reasonably Practicable Risk - ALARP
      Setting ALARP
      Difficulties with ALARP
      Reverse ALARP
Regulations
   Types of Safety Regulation
      Prescriptive / Goal-Based
      Enforcement Mechanism
      Reporting Requirements
      Examples of Types of Regulation
   The Regulator's Dilemma
   Responsible Parties
Rule-Making Process (U.S.)
Regulatory Agencies (U.S.)
   Outer Continental Shelf
   State Jurisdiction
   Minerals Management Service (MMS)
   BOEMRE
   Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement
      30 CFR Part 250
      Subparts
      NTLs
      Inspections
   Coast Guard
   Classification Societies
   Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
   Department of Transportation
   National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
   Army Corp of Engineers
   The Jones Act
   SAMS (California)
PFEER Regulation (UK)
International (SOLAS)
Special Safety Issues Offshore
   Lack of Escape Routes
   Persons on Board
   Hurricanes / Cyclones
   Downers and Leaners
   Blowouts
   Hydrogen Sulfide
   Dropped Objects
   Helicopters
   Ship Collisions

 

Chapter 2 - Major Offshore Events

Introduction
Santa Barbara (1969)
   The Event
   Incident Analysis
   Long-Term Impact
   Lessons for the Offshore Oil and Gas Industry
      Follow the Rules
      Public Response
      Economic Loss
   Elements of SEMS
      Operating Procedures
      Safe Work Practices
Flixborough (1974)
   The Event
   Incident Analysis
   Long-Term Impact
   Elements of SEMS
      Hazards Analysis
      Mechanical Integrity
      Management of Change
      Emergency Response and Control
Three Mile Island (1979)
   The Event
   Incident Analysis
      Follow the Rules
      Troubleshooting
      Fixation
      Critical Information Missing
      Operator-Instrumentation Interface   
      Inherent Safety
   Long-Term Impact
   Elements of SEMS
      Safety and Environmental Information
      Safe Work Practices
      Emergency Response and Control
Piper Alpha (1988)
   The Event
   Incident Analysis
   Long-Term Impact
   Elements of SEMS
      Pre-Startup Safety Review
      Safe Work Practices
      Investigation of Incidents
      Records and Documentation
Valdez (1989)
   The Event
   Incident Analysis
   Long-Term Impact
   Elements of SEMS
      Pre-Startup Review
      Safe Work Practices
Blackbeard (2006)
   The (Non)-Event
   Incident Analysis
   Long-Term Impact
   Elements of SEMS
      Safety and Environmental Information
      Safe Work Practices
Montara (2009)
   The Event
   Incident Analysis
   Long-Term Impact
   Elements of SEMS
      Hazards Analysis
      Training
Deepwater Horizon (2010)
   The Event
   Incident Analysis
   Long-Term Impact
   Lessons Learned
      Rules Should Be Followed
      Not "Taking a Risk for Safety"
   Elements of SEMS
Fukushima-Daiichi (2011)
   The Event
   Incident Analysis
   Long-Term Impact
   Elements of SEMS
      Hazards Analysis
      Emergency Response and Control
Report of the President's Commission
   Root Causes
      Management of Change
      Intervention
      Communication
      Lessons Learned
      Balancing Risk and Profitability
      Regulatory Failures
   Recommendations
      A1: Risk Management
      A2: "Safety Case" Approach
      A3: International Forum
      A4: Independent Agency
      A5: Regulatory Funding
      B1: Strengthen NEPA
      B2: Interagency Activities
      C1: Oil Spill Planning
      C2: District Plans
      C3: State and Local Involvement
      C4: Increased Research
      C5: Dispersants
      C6: Offshore Barrier Berms
      D1: Oversee Source-Control Efforts
      D2: Source Control Plans
      D3: Accurate Estimates
      D4: Proposed Well Design
   INPO
Management and Leadership
   Leadership
   Following the Rules
   Taking a Risk for Safety
   Technical Expertise
Need for New Standards

Chapter 3 - Safety Offshore

Introduction
API Standards
Center for Offshore Safety
Offshore Operators Committee
Fundamentals of Safety Management Systems
   Safe Limits
   Non-Prescriptive
   Performance-Based
   Holistic
   Involvement and Thoroughness
Recommended Practice 75
   Scope
   Management
Elements of SEMP
General
   Purpose and Objective
   Principles
   Setting Objectives and Goals
   Communication
   Appendix A - Contractor Selection Criteria
   Appendix B - Industry Codes, Practices, and Standards
      RP 14C
      RP 14G
      RP 14J
   Appendix C - References
   Appendix D - Definitions
   Appendix E - Performance Measures
SEMP and PSM

Chapter 4 - Regulations and Standards

Introduction
First Version of SEMS
Final Rule
Organization of the Rule
Scope
From SEMP to SEMS
Compliance
Contractors
   Types of Contractor
      Contract Companies
      Contract Workers
   Design Companies
   SEMS Requirements
   Bridging Documents
Elements of SEMS  
   The SEMS Standard
   Additional BOEMRE Requirements
   Special Offshore Issues
1. Safety and Environmental Information
   The SEMS Standard
   BOEMRE Requirements
2. Hazards Analysis
   The SEMS Standard
   BOEMRE Requirements
   Hazards Analysis Offshore
   Hazards Analysis Techniques
      Major Hazards Analysis
      Hazard Identification (HAZID)
      The Hazard and Operability Method (HAZOP)
      Bow-Tie Analysis
      Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA)
   Job Safety Analysis (JSA)
   Hazard Register
4. Management of Change
   The SEMS Standard
   BOEMRE Requirements
5. Operating Procedures
   SEMS Requirements
   BOEMRE Requirements
6. Safe Work Practices
   SEMS Requirements
   BOEMRE Requirements
7. Training
   SEMS Requirements
   BOEMRE Requirements
   Subpart 'O'
   SafeGulf
8. Mechanical Integrity
   SEMS Requirements
   BOEMRE Requirements
   Mechanical Integrity Offshore
9. Pre-Startup Review
   The SEMS Standard
   BOEMRE Requirements
   Prestartup Reviews Offshore
10. Emergency Response and Control
   SEMS Requirements
   BOEMRE Requirements
   Lack of Space
   Off-Duty Personnel
11. Investigation of Incidents
   The SEMS Standard
   BOEMRE Requirements
   Incident Investigation Offshore
12. Audits
   The SEMS Standard
   BOEMRE Requirements
   Audit Protocol
      Single Question
      Answers
   Frequency of Audits
   Audit Team
13. Records and Documentation
   SEMS Requirements
   BOEMRE Requirements
   Interaction between the Elements
   Form MMS-131
   Records and Documentation Offshore
SEMS II

Chapter 5 - Safety and Environmental Management Systems (SEMS)

Introduction
Types of Operator
   High Activity Companies
   Moderate Activity Companies
   Low Activity Companies
   Contractors
Timing
Designing a SEMS Program
Step 1 - Determine the Objectives
Step 2 - Create the Organization
   Corporate
   Facility Management
   Steering Committee
      Sub-Committees
      SEMS Coordinator
      Consultants
      RACI Chart
      Signature Authority
   The SEMS Manual
      General Section
      Management Elements
Step 3 - Develop a Plan
   Management Style
   Metrics and Baseline
      Program Creation
      On-Going Program
   Plan Structure
   Budget
   Schedule
Step 4 - Implement the Plan
   Preliminary Steps
      Read the Rule
      P&IDs and Technical Documents
      Management of Change
   HAZOPs
Step 5 - Audit / Improve
Risk-Based Approach - Plan B
High Priority Elements
Economics of SEMS
   Revenue
   Costs
   BOEMRE Data

Chapter 6 - Contractors

Introduction
Safety Case Definition
Different Industries
Features of a Safety Case
   Duty-Holder Responsibility
   Participation and Commitment
   Information Availability
   Risk Management System
   Safety Management Systems
   Auditor / Assessor Responsibility
   Program Steps
   Timing
   ALARP Demonstration
Length of the Safety Case
Major Accidents
   Major Accident Event
   Safety Critical Elements
   Performance Standards
IADC inherent-safety Case Guidelines
Structure of a Safety Case
   Section I - Executive Summary
   Section II - Introduction
   Section III - Policies, Objectives, Regulations and Standards
      Policies
      Objectives
      Regulations
      Standards
   Section IV - Facility Description
   Section V - Safety Management System
   Section VI - Formal Safety Assessment
   Section VII - Audit and Review
      Audits
      Performance Measurement
   Section VIII - References
Maintaining the Safety Case
   Changes in Risk Perception
   Changes in Operating Conditions
   Bridging Documents
Effectiveness of Safety Cases

Chapter 7 - Implementing SEMS

Introduction
Philosophies
Elements of an FSA
Assumptions Register
   Deck Type
   Numbers of Personnel and their Locations
   Leak Size and Frequencies
   Transportation Logistics
   Lifting Operations
   Rescue and Recovery Operations
   MetOcean Data
   Structural Failure Time
Hazards Register
Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA)
   Importance Ranking
   Fault Tree Analysis
      Gates
      OR Gate
      AND Gate
   Event Tree Analysis
   Combining Event Trees and Fault Trees
Facility Layout and Equipment Arrangement
Flare and Radiation Analysis
Material Handling Assessment / Dropped Objects
   Subsea Dropped Objects
   Moving Objects Subsea
   Safe Zones
Transportation
Fire and Gas Detection
   Fire Detection
   Fire Eyes / Flame Detectors
   Smoke Detectors
   Heat Detectors
   Fusible Links
   Low Oxygen Detectors
   Combustible Gas Detectors
   Manual Call Points
Gas Dispersion Analysis
   Gas Release Modeling
   Effect of Toxic Gases
   Thermal Plumes
Fire and Explosion Analysis
   Fires
      Flammable Range
      Ignition Temperature / Energy
   Smoke
   Explosions
      Physical Explosions
      Vapor Cloud Explosions
      Deflagrations and Detonations
      Blast Effects
Emergency Systems Survivability Analysis
Escape, Evacuation and Rescue Analysis
   Temporary Refuge
   Command and Control
      Emergency Response Team
      Training
      Emergency Alarms
   Escape from the Incident
      Escape Routes
      T-Cards
   Evacuation
      Embarkation Area
      Lifeboats / TEMPSC
      Life Rafts
      Escape to the Sea
      Rescue
Non-Hydrocarbon Analysis
   Hydrogen Sulfide
   Carbon Dioxide
   Nitrogen
   Other Chemicals
Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Noise and Vibration
   Sources of Noise
   Allowable Noise and Vibration Levels
   Noise Control
      Engineering Controls
      Pathway Control
      Administrative Controls
      PPE
Human Factors Engineering
Reliability, Availability and Maintainability (RAM)
   Human Reliability
      Human Reliability Analysis
      THERP
      Valve Criticality Analysis
   Reliability Data

Chapter 8 - Safety Cases

Introduction
Leadership and Management
Follow the Rules
Lack of Technical Expertise
Convergence of Standards
Spill Response
   Helix Fast Response System
   Marine Well Containment System
Long Tail Events
   Black Swans
   Short-Term Thinking
Conclusions

 

Author

Ian Sutton

Imprint

William Andrew

Print Book ISBN

9780323262064

Pages

352