Plant Design and Operations - 2nd Edition June 2017

Book Plant Design and Operations for Process Safety Management

Plant Design and Operations (PDO) provides practical guidance on the design, operation, and maintenance of process facilities. This book complements Process Risk and Reliability Management (PRRM). PRRM describes management principles and methods; PDO shows how those methods can be applied. For example, Chapter 11 of PRRM is entitled "Emergency Management". Chapter 14 of PDO contains information to do with the Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) used by emergency responders, and Chapter 12 is to do with Firefighting. The two books work with one another.

The book is based on years of hands-on experience gathered during the design and operation of a wide range of facilities in many different types of industry including chemicals, refining, offshore oil and gas, and pipelines. It helps managers, engineers, operators, and maintenance specialists with advice and guidance that can be used right away in working situations.

For example:

  • Chapter 10 to do with Energy Control describes seven levels of positive isolation - ranging from a closed block valve all the way to double block and bleed with line break.
  • Chapter 1 — Safety in Design  — describes topics such as area classification, fire protection, stairways and platforms, fixed ladders, emergency showers, lighting and alarms.
  • A logical, practical guide to maintenance task organization is provided in Chapter 9 from conducting a Job Hazards Analysis to the issue of a work permit, and to the shutdown and isolation of equipment.
  • Common hazards, such as problems to do with fluid flow, high pressure, corrosion and power failure are discussed in Chapter 19. Other areas covered by the book include security, equipment, and transportation.

Ordering Information

This book can be ordered directly from the publisher Elsevier, or from Amazon and Barnes & Noble. The chapters are available as ebooks from ScienceDirect.

Content

The book has 20 chapters; they are listed below. The contents for each chapter are shown in the next section.

  1. Safety in Design
  2. Siting and Layout
  3. Equipment and Buildings
  4. Piping
  5. Valves
  6. Instrumentation and Control
  7. Transportation
  8. Operations
  9. Maintenance
  10. Energy Control
  11. Inspection
  12. Firefighting
  13. Occupational Safety
  14. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
  15. Health
  16. Human Factors and Ergonomics
  17. Chemicals
  18. Industries
  19. Common Hazards
  20. Security

Chapters

The chapter contents are shown below. The links take you to the pertinent page for the chapter in ebook form.

Chapter 1 — Safety in Design

Introduction 
Standard Examples 
Terminology 
Regulations, Standards and Guidance 
   Regulatory Agencies (United States) 
   Regulations (International) 
   Industry Standards 
HSE 
Process Safety Management 
Risk Management 
Units of Measurement 
   SI Units 
   Date Format 
Engineering Drawings 
   Block Diagrams 
   Process Flow Diagrams 
   Piping and Instrument Diagrams 
      Symbols 
      Equipment Numbering 
   Spec Breaks 
   Isometric Drawings 
   Electrical Single-Line Diagrams 
Materials of Construction 
Flammable and Combustible Materials 
   Fire Triangle 
   Flammable Range 
   Flash Point 
   Flammable / Combustible Liquids 
      Class I Liquids 
      Class II Liquids 
      Class III Liquids
   Ignition Sources 
   Lightning 
Area Classification 
   IEC Code 
   Regulations and Standards 
   Temperature Code 
   Classification Plan 
Fireproofing Insulation
Fireproofing Materials
   Cryogenic Systems 
   Maintenance

Chapter 2 — Siting and Layout

Introduction
Regulations and Standards 
Siting 
Layout 
   Layout Risk Analysis 
   Facility Orientation 
   Hazardous Areas 
   Blocks and Roads
   Piping
   Drainage Systems 
   Loading/Unloading Facilities 
   Routine Access and Egress 
   Explosion Protection 
   Safe Areas 
   Emergency Escape 
   Manual Alarm Call Points 
   Process Isolation Valves 
   Firefighting 
   Emergency Showers and Eyewashes 
Equipment Spacing 
   Pressure Vessels 
   Hydrocarbon Storage Tanks 
   Pumps 
   Compressors / Compressor Drivers 
   Heat Exchangers 
   Boilers 
   Fired Equipment 
   Air Intakes 
   Equipment Stacking 
Piping and Valves 
   Piping 
   Valves 
Flares and Vents 
Buildings
Utilities 
Stairways and Ladders 
   Stairways 
      Dimensions 
      Landings 
      Load Capacity 
      Stair Rails 
      Stair Treads 
   Ladders 
      Dimensions 
      Safety Cages and Gates 
      Rungs and Stringers 
   Platforms 
   Guardrails, Handrails and Toeboards 
   Ramps 

Chapter 3 — Equipment and Buildings

Introduction 
Regulations and Standards 
Pressure Vessels / Columns
   Pressure Vessel Code
   Fire Hazard
   Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
   Vessels under Vacuum
   Storage Vessels
   Reflux Vessels
   Manways 
   Nameplate / Documentation
Storage Tanks
   Functions of Storage Tanks
   Types of Storage Tank
   Fixed Roof Tanks
   Floating Roof Tanks
   Plastic Tanks
   Bund Walls / Berms
   Tank Farms
   Stairs and Platforms
   Tank Design
      Static Electricity
      Blanket / Padding Gas
      Vents
      Connections, Nozzles and Manways
      Overflow Systems
      Instrumentation
      Temperature Control
   Tank Fires
   Boilover / Foamover
   Rag Layers
   BS&W
Pumps
   Types of Pump
      Centrifugal Pumps
      Positive Displacement Pumps
   Shutdown and Alarm Systems
   Suction Piping
   Minimum Flow Protection
   Fire Protection
   Sealless Pumps
   Sparing
   Pump Isolation
   Vibration
   Pump Casing
   Seals and Packing
Compressors
   API 618
   Seals 
   Shutdown and Alarm Systems
   Liquid Knockout
   Relief Valves
   Compressor Isolation
   Surge Protection
   Sparing Policy
Turbines
   Gas Turbines
   Steam Turbines
Heat Exchangers
Shell and Tube Exchangers
   Tube / Shell Side
   Tube Leakage
Air-Cooled Exchangers
Cooling Towers
   Natural / Forced Draft
   Safety
Fired Heaters
   Heat Transfer Fluids
   Air Preheaters 
   Safety
      No Process Flow
      Start-Up / Operations
Flares / Blowdown
   Emergency Depressurization
   Flaring
      Types of Flare
      Flare Design
      Ground Flares
      Smokeless Operation
   Thermal Oxidizers
Boilers
Internal Combustion Engines
   Starter Systems
   Intake, Exhaust and Fuel Systems
Electrical Equipment
   Transformers
   Equipment Grounding
   Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters
Buildings
   Administrative Buildings
   Control Buildings
      Control Rooms
      Computer Rooms
      Electrical Equipment Buildings/Substations
      HVAC
   Process Buildings
      Equipment Buildings
      Analyzer Houses / Operator Laboratories
   Warehouses and Workshops
   Temporary Buildings

Chapter 4 — Piping

Introduction 
Regulations and Standards
Pipe Specifications
Pipe Sizing
   Nominal Pipe Sizes
   Pipe Schedule
   Fluid Velocity
Materials
   Steel 
   Other Metals
   Polymers
Equipment 
Underground Piping
Fittings
   Welding
   Threaded Piping
   Expansion Compensators
      Expansion Loops
      Axial Joints 
      Bellows-Type
   Small Pipe Connections
Flanges
Gaskets
Blinds
   Line Blinds
   Spectacle Blinds
Insulation
Heat Tracing
   Steam Tracing
   Electrical Tracing
Flame Arrestors
   Thermal Flame Arrestors
   Water Seal Flame Arrestors
   Velocity Flame Arrestors
   Detonation Arrestors 
Vortex Breakers
Hoses

Chapter 5 — Valves

Introduction
Regulations and Standards
Valve Symbols
Block Valves
   Gate Valves
   Ball Valves
   Butterfly Valves
   Plug Valves
   Needle Valves
   Excess Flow Valves
   Self-Closing Valves
Globe / Control Valves
Check (Non-Return) Valves
Rotary Valves
Flangeless Valves
Emergency Isolation Valves
Valve Seat Materials
Valve Position
Steam Traps
Pressure Relief Devices
   Causes of Overpressure
   Pressure Safety Relief Valves
   Pilot-Operated Pressure Relief Valves
   Block Valves
   Thermal Relief Valves
   Rupture Disks
      Below Relief Valves 
      Setting the Pressure
   Hatches / Doors

Chapter 6 — Instrumentation and Control

Introduction 
Operating / Safe Limits
Process Control
Distributed Control Systems
SCADA
Safety Instrumented Systems
   Safety Integrity Level
   Testing and Inspection
HIPPS
Fire and Gas Detection
   Fire Detection
      Flammable Gas Detection
      Fire / Flame Detection
      Heat Detection
      Fusible Links
      Smoke Detection
      Ultrasonic Detectors
      Closed-Circuit Television
      Detection by Persons
   Toxic Gas Detection
   Layout of Detectors
   Portable Gas Detectors
Alarm Systems
   Alarm Signaling
   Response to Alarms
   Response Matrix
   Limitations
   Alarm Flooding

Chapter 7 — Transportation

Introduction
Terminology
Regulations and Standards
   International Safety Guide
   CAP 437 -  Offshore Helicopter Landing Areas
Loading / Unloading
Loading Racks
Static Electricity
   Bonding
   Switch Loading
   Additives
Tank (Rail) Cars
   Tank Car Markings
   Pressure Vessels
   Empty Cars
   Graffiti
Vacuum Trucks
Marine Operations
   Ships and Barges
   Small Boats
   Jetty Terminals
   Personnel Transfer
      Personnel Net Baskets
      Rigid Frame Baskets
   Cargo Baskets
   Helicopters
      Personnel Movement
      Helidecks
Pipelines
   One Call
   Pigging
      Hazards
      Pig Launching
      Pig Receiving
      Smart Pigs
   Slug Catchers

Chapter 8 — Operations

Introduction
Regulations and Standards
Housekeeping
Storage and Handling of Hazardous Materials
   Flammable Liquids
   Oxidizing Agents
   Catching Samples
   Gas Storage Cylinders
Tank Operations
   Filling and Emptying
   Purging and Cleaning
Rotating Equipment
Emergency Response
   Manual Emergency Shutdown
   Evacuation, Escape and Rescue
   Personnel Tracking
Non-Process Operations
   Outside Storage
   Coal and Coke Storage
   Drum Storage
Cranes and Rigging
   Lifting Precautions
   Wire Ropes, Chains, and Slings
   Tag Lines
Start-Up
   Commissioning 
   Operational Readiness Review
   Start-Up

Chapter 9 — Maintenance

Introduction
Regulations and Standards
Maintenance Management System (MMS)
Types of Maintenance
   Repair Maintenance
   Condition-Based Maintenance
   Scheduled Maintenance
   Reliability-Centered Maintenance
Procurement
   Spare Parts
   Documentation
   Factory Acceptance Tests (FAT)
Maintenance Task Organization
   Step 1 — Plan the Work
   Step 2 — Conduct a Job Hazards Analysis
   Step 3 — Prepare / Issue a Work Permit
   Step 4 — Shutdown and Isolate Equipment
   Step 5 — First Break
   Step 6 — Perform the Work
   Step 7 — Close Out the Work
   Step 8 — Handover to Operations
      Equipment Check
      Inspected, Tested, and Documented
      System Completion
      Operational Readiness/Prestartup Safety Review
Pressure Tests
   Testing Procedure
   Installing Blinds
   Test Medium
      Hydrostatic / Liquid Test
      Pneumatic / Gas
   Tightness Test
   Strength Test
   Pressure Test Manual
   Records
On-Line Cleaning and Repair
Corrosion
   Cathodic Protection
   Corrosion under Insulation
   CO2 Corrosion
   Sulfide Stress Cracking
   Controlling Corrosion
Simultaneous Operations (SIMOPs)
   Managing SIMOPs
   SIMOPS Matrix
   Conducting SIMOPs
      Kickoff Meeting
      Communication Meetings
      Close Out

Chapter 10 — Energy Control

Introduction
Regulations and Standards
   29 CFR 1910.119
   API 2015
   API 2026 
   API 2217A
   ANSI Z117.1
   NFPA 69
Example 
Risk Management
Energy Control Program
Step 1 — Job Hazards Analysis
Step 2 — Work Permit
   General Work Permits
   Hot Work Permits
   Confined Space Permits
   Issuing the Permit
   Multiple Work Permits
   Changes in Conditions
   Barrier Tape
Step 3 — Vent, Drain and Purge
   Inert Gas
   Air-Blowing Hydrocarbon Lines
Step 4 — Isolate the Equipment
   Positive Isolation
      Level 1 — Closed Valve
      Level 2 — Closed Valve with Open Bleeder
      Level 3 — Double Block and Bleed
      Level 4 — Block and Bleed with Line Break
      Level 5 —  Block, Bleed and Spectacle Blind
      Level 6 — Double Block and Bleed with Blind
      Level 7 — Double Block and Bleed with Line Break
   Non-Positive Isolation
      Administrative Controls
      Pipe Plugs
Step 5 - Open the Equipment
   Test for Oxygen
   Heavy Sludge Deposits
Step 6 — Complete Work / Return to Service
   Lockout / Tagout
   Car Seals
   Group Lockout / Lockboxes
   Padlocks
   Tags
   Removing Locks and Tags
Electrical Isolation
Confined Space Entry
   Types of Space
   The Entry Permit
   Personnel
      Entrant
      Supervisor
      Manway Attendant
      Gas Tester
      Rescue Team
   Test
   Excavations
      Preparations
      Inspection
      Cave-In Protection
Tie-Ins
Hot Tapping
Plugged Lines
   Prevention of Pluggage
   Unplugging a Line
   Mechanical
   Differential Pressure
      Fluid Selection
      Steam
   Compressed Gas

Chapter 11 — Inspection

Introduction
Regulations and Standards
   API RP 510
   API 653
   API RP 580
Organization
Inspection Programs
   Initial Inspection 
   Routine External Inspection
   Complete External Inspection
   Internal Inspection
   Inspection Frequency
   Non-Destructive Testing
   Continuous Monitoring
Equipment and Piping
   Pumps
   Tanks
   Relief Valves
Inspection Records and Report
Risk-Based Inspection
   Analyze Risk
   Determine Costs 
   Allocate Resources

Chapter 12 — Firefighting

Introduction 
Regulations and Standards
   API 2021
   NFPA 10
Fire Scenarios
   Leak Sources
   Types of Fire
   Single Fire Concept
   Radiant Heat
Fire Prevention
   Release Prevention 
   Preventing Ignition 
Fire Protection
   Operating Response
   Safety Instrumentation
   Passive Fire Protection
   Active Fire Protection
Firewater Systems
Firewater Supply 
Firewater Pumps 
   Main Fire Pumps 
   Jockey Pumps
Firewater Distribution
   Ring Main / Header
   Capacity and Rates
   Disposal of Firewater
   Materials of Construction
Firewater Delivery
   Hydrants 
   Fire Monitors
   Sprays
      Sprinklers
      Water Fog Systems
      Water Curtains
   Deluge Systems
   Testing
Other Firefighting Media
   Halons
   Steam
   Foam 
   Carbon Dioxide
   Inergen
   Earth-Moving Equipment
Portable Fire Extinguishers
   Water Extinguishers
   Carbon Dioxide Extinguishers
   Dry Chemical Extinguishers
Organization and Training
   First Response Team
   Communications 
   Firefighting Vehicles
   Fire Training Ground

Chapter 13 — Occupational Safety

Introduction
Regulations, Standards and Guidance
Measuring Performance
Safety Manual
Incident Reporting
   Vehicle Incidents
   Near Misses
Behavior-Based Safety
   Management Commitment
   Observed Hazard Card
   Timeout Policies
      Five by Five Policy
      Take Two Policy
      Speaking the Task
Lone Worker Policy
Machinery Safety
Dropped Objects
Overhead Power Lines
Emergency Showers and Eyewashes
   Design of Emergency Showers
      Flow Rates and Pattern 
      Visibility and Accessibility
      Alarms
      Electrical Area
      Freeze Protection
      Heat Protection
      Enclosures
   Operating the Shower
   Eye-Wash Units
   Testing

Chapter 14 — Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Introduction
Types of PPE 488
Regulations and Standards 489
General 489
Guidance Documents 492
OSHA 3151 492
HSE Personal Protective Equipment 492
Clothing 493
Flame Resistant Clothing 493
Impervious Clothing / Proximity Suits 494
Bunker Gear 494
Head Protection 495
Additional Equipment / Markers
Color Schemes
Maintenance and Storage
Hand Protection
Foot Protection
Eye / Face Protection
Respiratory Protection
Supplied Air Respirators
Air-Purifying Respirators 499
Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBAs)
Chemical Canister Rebreathers
Disposable Respirators
Fall Protection
Definitions
Fall Protection System
Fall Arrest System Equipment

Chapter 15 — Health

Introduction
Regulations and Standards
Employee Access to Records
Asbestos 507
Radiant Heat 508
Noise 509
Definitions 510
Noise Limits
Noise Control 513
Remove the Source 513
Modify the Source 514
Relocation / Barriers 514
Enclose Equipment 514
Hearing Protection 515
Administrative Controls 515
Vibration Control 515
NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) 516
Regulations and Standards 516
TENORM 516
Exposure 516
Treatment 517
Water / Dry Blasting 517
Safe Limits 517
Protective Measures 517
Lifting 517
Heat Stress 518
Heat Index 518
Types of Heat Stress 518
Heat Stress Factors 519
Heat Stress Prevention 521
Thermal Radiation 521
Cold Stress 522
Equivalent Chill Temperature 523
Controlling Cold Stress 523
Food and Galley Hygiene 524
Methods of Preservation and Treatment 524
Treating Contamination 524
Storage and Cooking Temperatures 525
Facilities and Equipment 525
Alcohol and Drug Policy 525
Coverage 526
Affected Participants 526
Applicants for Employment 527
Testing 527
Legal Drugs
Contractors

Chapter 16 — Human Factors and Ergonomics

Introduction
Regulations and Standards
Process Safety Management 532
Principles of Human Behavior
Improving Human Factors 535
Change the Work / Workplace 535
Change Work Performance 536
Change the Person 536
Human Error 536
Automation of Functions
Control Rooms 537
Work Stations 538
Operation of Valves 539
Critical Valves 539
Non-Critical valves 540
Non-Operational Valves 540
Valve Criticality Analysis 540
Signs 541
Prohibition 541
Mandatory Action 543
Warning 544
Safe Condition 545
The Safety Diamond 546
Labeling 550
Color Coding 551
General Application 551
APWA 551
Piping 552
Hoses 553
Refineries 553
Human Factors on Projects
   Phase I — Concept Selection
   Phase II — Preliminary Engineering
   Phase III — Detailed Engineering

Chapter 17 — Chemicals

Introduction
Regulations and Standards
Safety Data Sheets 561
Structure 563
OSHA Requirements 564
Global Harmonization System 566
Fluid Categories 566
Chemical Compatibility 567
Exposure Limits 567
Emergency Response Planning Guidelines (ERPGs) 568
Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) 569
Permissible Exposure Limits (PEL) 570
Threshold Limit Values (TLV) 570
Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL) 571
Benzene 571
Carbon Dioxide 571
Carbon Monoxide 572
Chlorine 572
Hydrogen Fluoride 572
Unloading 573
KOH Beds 573
Dedicated Flare 573
Hydrogen Sulfide 573
Regulations and Standards 574
Toxicity 574
Location of Fixed Monitors 575
Sensor Technology 576
Flaring of H2S 576
Corrosion/Metallurgy 577
H2S Safety Plan 577
Basic Guidance 577
Offshore Facilities 578
Tank Gauging 578
Training/Drills 579
Respiratory Protection 579
Sensor Locations 579
H2S Emergencies 580
First Aid Treatment 580
Emergency Contact 581
Lead 581
Nitrogen 582
Sulfur Dioxide 583
Oxygen 584
Oxidizing Agents

Chapter 18 — Industries

Introduction
Offshore Oil and Gas
   Platform Layout
   Rotating Equipment
   Flares
   Wellbay Area
   Drilling Rigs
   Noise
   Emergency Evacuation and Rescue
   Secondary Method of Escape
      Embarkation Areas
      Launching
      Positioning and Orientation
   Tertiary Methods of Escape
   Temporary Refuge
Oil Refineries
   Distillation
   Chemical Reactions 
Chemical and Petrochemical Plants

Chapter 19 — Common Hazards

Introduction
Process Hazards
   High Flow
   Low / No Flow
   Reverse Flow
   Misdirected Flow
   High Pressure
   High Temperature
      Blocked-In Pump
      Polymerization
      External Fire
   Low Pressure
   Low Temperature
   High Level
   Wrong Composition
   Chemical Embrittlement
   Strong Oxidizers
   Static Electricity
Hazards of Utilities
   Common Cause Failure
   Process Contamination
   Electrical Power Failure
   Nitrogen
   Reverse Flow to a Utility Header
   Survivability of Utilities
Hazards of Water
   Water in Very Hot Liquid
   Water and Firefighting
Hazards of Steam
   Steaming Vessels during Turnaround
   Reboiler Leak
   Wet Steam in Turbines
Hazards of Ice
   Line Freezing
   Hydrates
Hazards of Compressed Gas
   Gas Cylinders
   Pigging
Hazards of Air
   Flammable Mixture
   Blowing a Line Clear
Hazards of External Events
   Flooding
   Earthquakes
Hazards of Equipment and Instruments
   Furnace Firing
   Fired Heater Burnout
   Multiple Uses of Equipment
   Distributed Control Systems
Hazards of Piping, Valves and Hoses
   Piping
      Pipe Class Transition
      Hydraulic Hammer
      Pig Launchers and Receivers
      Pressure in Relief Headers
      Flame Propagation through Drains
      Overload of Overhead Vacuum Lines
      Underground Piping
      Vents and Bleeders
   Hoses
      Hoses and Truck Pull-Away
      Hose Run Over
      Hose Failure
      Temporary Connection
   Valves
      Block Valves below Relief Valves
      Fail-Safe Control Valves
   Shared Relief Valve
   SDV Bypass

Chapter 20 — Security

Introduction
Regulations and Standards 
Types of Attack
   Members of the Public
      Vandalism
      Theft 
      Activists 
   Sabotage 
   Terrorism 
      Visible Security 
      Population Density
      High Profile
Security Vulnerability Analyses
   Rings of Protection
   Cybersecurity
Managing Security 
   Culture 
   Inherent Safety
   Access Security 
   Personnel Screening 
   Offshore
   TWIC (United States)
   Equipment Modifications 
Response to a Threatening Call 

Author

Ian Sutton

Release date

2017-06-18

Imprint

Gulf Professional Publishing

Print Book ISBN

9780128128831

Pages

598