Operating Procedures

Operating Procedures for Process Safety Management

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Overview

All process safety management (PSM) standards require that accurate, readable and comprehensive operating procedures be written. No matter how automated operations may be a human-machine interface will always exist, and that interface will be controlled through the use of procedures and training. This ebook describes how to write and publish operating procedures. It also shows how to integrate them within an overall process safety management program.

Related Materials

Further discussion and guidance to do with the writing of operating and maintenance procedures is provided in the following ebooks:

Table of Contents

Definition of Operating Procedures 
   Operations 
   Written Instructions 
   Design or Operating Intent 
Definition of Maintenance Procedures 
Terminology 
Engineering the Solution
Quick Assessment of Operating Procedures 
The Users 
   Experienced Technicians 
   Less Experienced Technicians 
   Engineering / Management 
   DCS / SCADA Programmers 
   Auditors, Regulators and Inspectors 
   Translators 
Elements of Operational Integrity Management 
   Workforce Involvement 
   Knowledge Management 
   Hazard Identification and Risk Management 
   Management of Change 
   Operational Readiness 
   Emergency Management 
   Technical Information 
Types of Operating Procedure 
Steady-State Operating Procedures 
   Types of Steady-State Procedure 
   Shift Change 
Start-Up Procedures 
Shutdown Procedures 
   Levels of Shutdown 
      Stand-By 
      Unit Shutdown 
      Facility Shutdown 
      Emergency Shutdown 
      Turnaround 
Trouble Shooting Procedures 
   Elements of Troubleshooting Procedures 
   Structure of Troubleshooting Procedures 
Temporary Operating Procedures 
Batch Procedures 
Standard Operating Procedures 
Maintenance Procedures 
Job Safe Practices 
Software Analogy 
   Modular Design 
      Connecting the Modules 
      If / Then / Else Instructions 
      Modular Operating Manual 
   Data Base Structure 
   Top-Down Development 
   Prototyping 
   Limitations of Modularity 
Design of an Operating Manual 
   Adding and Removing Modules 
   Numbering the Modules 
Module Design 
   The Title Block 
      Procedure Name
      Module Number 
      Purpose of the Procedure 
      Revision Number
      Date of Revision
      Covered Persons
      Company / Facility
      Safe Upper and Lower Limits
      Special Safety Items
      Equipment Information
      Training
   The Operating Task Instructions
      Step Number Column
      Person
      Action
      Discussion / Illustration
   The Authorization Block
      Written By
      Approval — Superintendent
      Approval — Manager
      Authorization Sheet
   Overall Module
   Links to Other Procedures and Manuals
   Links to Technical Information
   Training
   Two-Page Modules 
Content Development 
   Level of Detail
      Level 1  Overview / Checklists 
      Level 2  Equipment Description 
      Level 3  Valve Detail 
   Sources of Information
      Existing Procedures
      Technician Interviews
      Engineering Information
      Vendor Manuals
      Process Hazards Analyses
The Procedures-Writing Team
Writing and Publishing
Project Organization
1. Define the Scope of Work 
   Physical Area / Equipment Covered
   Users
   Types of Procedure
   Job Task Analysis 
   Design of the Manual
   Regulations / Standards
   Writer’s Guide
2.  Create the Team
   Steering Committee
   Project Manager
   Project Lead 
   Technicians 
   Technology Expert
      Interviewer-Writers
      Publisher / Webmaster
3  Develop a Detailed Plan
   Schedule and Progress Metric
   Budget
   Prepare the SOPs
4  Collect Information
   Operator Interviews
   Existing Procedures / Vendor Manuals
   Logbooks
5.  Write the Procedures
   Draft Releases
   Plan to Throw One Away - You Will Anyway 
6.  Review and Signature
7.  Publish 
Potential Difficulties 
   Poorly Defined Goals 
   Too Many People
   Extended Review Cycle
   Lack of Signatures
Maintaining the Procedures
   Procedures Modification Process
   Organization
Writing Guidelines
Vigorous Writing
   Minimalist Writing
   Short, Pithy Instructions
   Avoid Repetition of Instructions
   Omit Needless Words
   Omit Adverbs
   Short and Old Words
   Avoid Wordy Phrases and Padded Syllables
Writing Style
   Imperative Tense
   Active Voice
   Reading Grade Level
   List Instructions Singly
   Implied Instructions
   Bulleted Lists
   Conditional Instructions
   Positive / Negative Instructions
Vocabulary
   Identification of Equipment
   Consistency
   Should / Would / Could
   The Word ‘You’
   The Word ‘This’
   Arabic Numerals
   Adverbs and Adjectives
   Articles
   Humor 
   Spelling 
   Latinate Abbreviations 
   Apostrophes 
   Ambiguous Words 
Repetition of Messages 
   Danger, Warning, Caution, Note 
   Proofreader Marks 
Illustrations 
   Photographs 
   P&IDs 
   Iconic Flow Diagrams / Schematics 
   Maps / Plot Plans 
Publishing 
   Color 
   White Space 
   Fonts 
   Paragraph Formatting 
   Emphasis Techniques 
   Heading 
   Page Numbering 
   Single-Sided versus Double-Sided Printing 
   Indexing 
   Glossary 
   The Binder 
Multiple Languages 


Copyright © Ian Sutton. 2018. All Rights Reserved.