Chemicals

Chemicals in the process industries

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Overview

Process Safety ChemicalsThe process industries use, manufacture and transport a very wide range of ‘Highly Hazardous Chemicals’ or HHCs. These materials can be explosive, flammable and toxic — or a combination of these three.

The term “highly hazardous chemical” is also defined by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers in ASME B31.3 — 1990 Chemical Plant & Petroleum Piping. They define a “Category M Fluid Service” as that service in which the potential for personnel exposure is judged to be significant and in which a single exposure to a very small quantity of a toxic fluid can produce serious, irreversible harm to persons even when prompt restorative measures are taken.

This ebook describes some of the techniques that are used for classifying chemicals. Then some of the chemicals that are commonly found in process facilities are discussed in more detail.

Table of Contents

Introduction 
Regulations and Standards
Safety Data Sheets
   Structure 
   OSHA Requirements 
Global Harmonization System 
Fluid Categories
Chemical Compatibility 
Exposure Limits 
   Emergency Response Planning Guidelines (ERPGs)
   Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH)
   Permissible Exposure Limits (PEL)
   Threshold Limit Values (TLV)
   Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL)
Benzene 
Carbon Dioxide 
Carbon Monoxide 
Chlorine 
Hydrogen Fluoride 
   Unloading 
   KOH Beds 
   Dedicated Flare 
Hydrogen Sulfide 
   Regulations and Standards 
   Toxicity 
   Location of Fixed Monitors 
   Sensor Technology
   Flaring of H2S
   Corrosion/Metallurgy
   H2S Safety Plan
      Basic Guidance
      Offshore Facilities
      Tank Gauging
      Training/Drills 
      Respiratory Protection
      Sensor Locations 
      H2S Emergencies 
      First Aid Treatment
      Emergency Contact
Lead
Nitrogen
Sulfur Dioxide 
Oxygen 
Oxidizing Agents