Piping

Piping in the process and energy industries

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Piping 

Piping is at the heart of any process facility and generally makes up a large fraction of the overall capital cost. This ebook describes the design, operation and maintenance of piping in energy and process facilities.

Many of the comments made with respect to the safety and operation of pressure vessels apply equally to piping. Indeed, a pipe is, in effect, a long, narrow pressure vessel, although one that is more vulnerable to vibration, thermal expansion/contraction and external impact from vehicles and projectiles.

When discussing pipe sizes it is important to distinguish between tubing and piping. The size of a tube is based on its exact outside diameter (OD) and wall thickness. Pipe, on the other hand, has a nominal OD which is defined by ANSI standards. Tubing is usually more expensive than pipe due to tighter manufacturing tolerances. In general the transition between tubing and piping occurs at around DN 20 or ¾ inch.

The following should be considered in determining a suitable pipe size:

  • Available pressure drop.
  • Pressure surges that may occur in the piping system.
  • Pump shut-off pressure.
  • The potential for erosion.
  • Vibration.
  • Settlement of solids if the fluid is a slurry.
  • The potential for two phase flow.
  • The allowable temperature drop along the length of the pipe.

This ebook describes many of the regulations and standards that apply to process piping. Agencies and authorities covered include ASME, NFPA, IEEE and API.

Table of Contents

Introduction 
Regulations and Standards
Pipe Specifications
Pipe Sizing
   Nominal Pipe Sizes
   Pipe Schedule
   Fluid Velocity
Materials
   Steel 
   Other Metals
   Polymers
Equipment 
Underground Piping
Fittings
   Welding
   Threaded Piping
   Expansion Compensators
      Expansion Loops
      Axial Joints 
      Bellows-Type
   Small Pipe Connections
Flanges
Gaskets
Blinds
   Line Blinds
   Spectacle Blinds
Insulation
Heat Tracing
   Steam Tracing
   Electrical Tracing
Flame Arrestors
   Thermal Flame Arrestors
   Water Seal Flame Arrestors
   Velocity Flame Arrestors
   Detonation Arrestors 
Vortex Breakers
Hoses


Copyright © Ian Sutton. 2018. All Rights Reserved.