Management of Change

Management of Change work flow


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The proper management of change (MOC) lies at the heart of any successful risk management or process safety management program. It can be taken for granted that everyone associated with the design and operation of any industrial facility wants to do a good job. Yet, in spite of their best intentions, accidents continue to happen; people get hurt, production is lost, and the environment is polluted. All of these undesired events are caused by uncontrolled change. Someone, somewhere moved operating conditions outside their safe range without taking the proper precautions, i.e., without implementing the MOC process.

Simply setting up an MOC system, with its accompanying forms and software, is not sufficient. The people who use the system must understand its intent and the manner in which it is to be used. A facility’s MOC program may look good on paper, but, if the people working there do not understand its fundamental purpose then that program will not be effective. MOC is not just a program — it is a way of life for all employees and contract workers.

There is, however, one note of caution that should be sounded. It has been stressed throughout this book that a key to a successful process safety program is to develop a culture that encourages the involvement of all employees. In this respect, an MOC program is different. The program imposes a clear structure and discipline on all employees and discourages spontaneous actions.

The effort needed to properly manage change can be substantial. It has been reported (Bradley, 1996) that the number of changes that flow through the MOC system is typically around 250 per year for a medium-sized site (with say 140 employees) and up to 1,000 a year for a large site with say 2,000 employees. One world-scale refinery in Texas had 1,400 changes in 2008. About 75% of the changes were regarded as moderate, i.e., they were not perceived as materially affecting the safety of the unit; nevertheless, they had to be handled through the MOC system.

Related Materials

Further discussion and guidance to do with the important topic of Management of Change is provided in the following ebooks:

Table of Contents

   Benefits of Management of Change 
   Increased Production, Productivity and Quality
   Maintenance Expense and Safety
   Environmental Performance 
   Personal Reputation 
Definition of MOC 
   Deviation beyond Limits 
   Impact on other Process Safety Elements 
   Critical Changes 
In-Kind / Not-In-Kind Change 
   Same Specification 
   Same Service and Materials of Construction 
   Same Storage and Handling Process
   Procedural Replacement 
   Process Chemistry 
   Instrumentation and Control Systems
Types of Change 
   Initiated Equipment Change 
      Large and Small Changes
      Field Change 
   Non-Initiated Equipment Change
      Overt Change 
      Covert Change 
   Temporary Changes
   Emergency Changes
   Administrative and Organizational Change
      Management by Contractors
Informal Aspects of MOC
The Management of Change Process
Section A  —  Initiator Request 
      Personal Recognition 
      Company Loyalty 
   Request Process 
      Step 1 — Problem / Opportunity Identified
      Step 2 — Need For Change
      Step 3 — Corrective Action
      Step 4 — System Change
   Management of Change Form — Section A 
      Name of the Sponsor / Initiator(s) / Date
      Description of Problem and Its Consequences
      Proposed Change 
      Emergency Change / Temporary Change 
      Previous Actions Taken 
Section B  —  First Review
   In-Kind / Not-In-Kind Change
   Selecting the First Reviewers
   Management of Change Form — Section B 
      Name / Date 
      Suggested Modifications
Section C  —  Detailed Evaluation
   Review Process
   MOC Coordinator
   Review Team 
      Process Manager 
      Engineering Manager 
      Operations Manager 
   Project Team
      1.  Confirm the Problem 
      2.  Problem Analysis 
      3.  Identify Possible Solutions 
      Technical Knowledge
      “Out-of-the-Box” Thinking
   Management of Change Form — Section C 
Section D  —  Formal Approval 
   Management of Change Committee 
   Process Hazards Analysis
   Variance Procedures 
Section E  —  New Limits / Process Safety Update
Section F  —  Notification 
Section G  —  Implementation 
Section H — Follow-Up