Equipment and Buildings

Equipment and Buildings

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Equipment and Buildings

Equipment for the process industries often handles corrosive and toxic materials at high temperatures and pressures. Therefore it is vital that this equipment is designed and operated such that it maintains integrity at all times. An unanticipated failure of an equipment item can have catastrophic consequences.

This ebook describes the different types of equipment used in the process industries; also the buildings that are used. Piping, valves and instrumentation are discussed in subsequent ebooks.

Items included are:

  • Pressure Vessels / Columns
  • Storage Tanks
  • Pumps
  • Compressors
  • Turbines
  • Heat Exchangers
  • Shell and Tube Exchangers
  • Air-Cooled Exchangers
  • Cooling Towers
  • Fired Heaters
  • Flares / Blowdown
  • Boilers
  • Internal Combustion Engines
  • Electrical Equipment
  • Buildings

Regulations, Codes and Standards

Included is an overview of the large number of engineering standards, codes and regulations that apply to equipment in the process industries. Standards that are referenced include:

  • API(American Petroleum Institute) Standard 521. Pressure-Relieving and Depressuring Systems 
  • API (American Petroleum Institute) Standard 2000. Venting Atmospheric and Low Pressure Storage Tanks. 2014.
  • API (American Petroleum Institute) RP 2003. Protection Against Ignitions Arising Out of Static, Lightning, and Stray Currents. 2015.
  • API (American Petroleum Institute). Standard 2015. Requirements for Safe Entry and Cleaning of Petroleum Storage Tanks. 2005.
  • ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
  • DIN EN 13445 - Unfired Pressure Vessels
  • Australian Standard 1940 The Storage and Handling of Flammable and Combustible Liquids

Table of Contents

Introduction 
Regulations and Standards 
Pressure Vessels / Columns
   Pressure Vessel Code
   Fire Hazard
   Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
   Vessels under Vacuum
   Storage Vessels
   Reflux Vessels
   Manways 
   Nameplate / Documentation
Storage Tanks
   Functions of Storage Tanks
   Types of Storage Tank
   Fixed Roof Tanks
   Floating Roof Tanks
   Plastic Tanks
   Bund Walls / Berms
   Tank Farms
   Stairs and Platforms
   Tank Design
      Static Electricity
      Blanket / Padding Gas
      Vents
      Connections, Nozzles and Manways
      Overflow Systems
      Instrumentation
      Temperature Control
   Tank Fires
   Boilover / Foamover
   Rag Layers
   BS&W
Pumps
   Types of Pump
      Centrifugal Pumps
      Positive Displacement Pumps
   Shutdown and Alarm Systems
   Suction Piping
   Minimum Flow Protection
   Fire Protection
   Sealless Pumps
   Sparing
   Pump Isolation
   Vibration
   Pump Casing
   Seals and Packing
Compressors
   API 618
   Seals 
   Shutdown and Alarm Systems
   Liquid Knockout
   Relief Valves
   Compressor Isolation
   Surge Protection
   Sparing Policy
Turbines
   Gas Turbines
   Steam Turbines
Heat Exchangers
Shell and Tube Exchangers
   Tube / Shell Side
   Tube Leakage
Air-Cooled Exchangers
Cooling Towers
   Natural / Forced Draft
   Safety
Fired Heaters
   Heat Transfer Fluids
   Air Preheaters 
   Safety
      No Process Flow
      Start-Up / Operations
Flares / Blowdown
   Emergency Depressurization
   Flaring
      Types of Flare
      Flare Design
      Ground Flares
      Smokeless Operation
   Thermal Oxidizers
Boilers
Internal Combustion Engines
   Starter Systems
   Intake, Exhaust and Fuel Systems
Electrical Equipment
   Transformers
   Equipment Grounding
   Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters
Buildings
   Administrative Buildings
   Control Buildings
      Control Rooms
      Computer Rooms
      Electrical Equipment Buildings/Substations
      HVAC
   Process Buildings
      Equipment Buildings
      Analyzer Houses / Operator Laboratories
   Warehouses and Workshops
   Temporary Buildings


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