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Piping is at the heart of any process facility and generally makes up a large fraction of the overall capital cost. This ebook describes the design, operation and maintenance of piping in energy and process facilities.
Many of the comments made with respect to the safety and operation of pressure vessels apply equally to piping. Indeed, a pipe is, in effect, a long, narrow pressure vessel, although one that is more vulnerable to vibration, thermal expansion/contraction and external impact from vehicles and projectiles.
When discussing pipe sizes it is important to distinguish between tubing and piping. The size of a tube is based on its exact outside diameter (OD) and wall thickness. Pipe, on the other hand, has a nominal OD which is defined by ANSI standards. Tubing is usually more expensive than pipe due to tighter manufacturing tolerances. In general the transition between tubing and piping occurs at around DN 20 or ¾ inch.
The following should be considered in determining a suitable pipe size:
- Available pressure drop.
- Pressure surges that may occur in the piping system.
- Pump shut-off pressure.
- The potential for erosion.
- Settlement of solids if the fluid is a slurry.
- The potential for two phase flow.
- The allowable temperature drop along the length of the pipe.
This ebook describes many of the regulations and standards that apply to process piping. Agencies and authorities covered include ASME, NFPA, IEEE and API.
Table of Contents
Regulations and Standards
Nominal Pipe Sizes
Small Pipe Connections
Thermal Flame Arrestors
Water Seal Flame Arrestors
Velocity Flame Arrestors
Copyright © Ian Sutton. 2018. All Rights Reserved.