An oil refinery located in a major metropolitan area used a hydrogen fluoride (HF) alkylation process. HF is a liquid at ambient conditions, but, on release to the atmosphere, it forms a highly toxic vapor cloud which can remain at ground level and drift for a long distance. Moreover, if it comes into contact with water it forms highly corrosive hydrofluoric acid.
Behavior-Based Safety Overview
A behavior-based safety (BBS) program aims to make permanent changes in the manner in which people work. Safety becomes a way of life that is baked into everyone's behavior. It is important to recognize, however, that a BBS program does not attempt to chance who a person is, and it most certainly is not a pop-psychology program. The program is directed just to a person's actions.
History Safety Management: we have published a 30 minute video package that shows how safety management systems in the process and energy industries have developed during the course of the last 300 years. The YouTube video shown at the end of this page provides a short extract.
NORM Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material is found in many naturally-occurring materials, including some oil and gas deposits. When NORM is transported to the surface in production streams it can precipitate and accumulate inside tubing strings, surface equipment and piping as sulfate and carbonate deposits. NORM can also be found in refinery piping.
The material in this article is extracted from Chapter 2 of the 2nd edition of book Plant Design and Operations.
When developing the layout for a facility it is very important to ensure that personnel can move around quickly and safely using stairways, ladders, platforms and ramps. They should also be able to use the stairways and ladders to move maintenance equipment and tools, as needed and also to evacuate the facility during an emergency.
The material in this article is taken from Chapter 12 of the 2ndedition of the book Plant Design and Operations.
The first step in the design and development of a system to prevent, control and extinguish fires is to identify the various release scenarios that could lead to an explosion and/or fire. This is often done through use of a hazards analysis technique such as HAZOP (Hazard and Operability Study) or a “What If” study.
Lockout / tagout systems are routinely used to protect workers when they are working with or close to hazardous systems. They are typically used in conjunction with the other isolation methods. Once a switch or valve is in the correct position it is locked so that it cannot be moved, and a 'Do Not Operate' tag is attached to it. (Valves are often chained in place, with the lock being used to secure the chain such that the valve handle cannot be moved.)
Confined Space Entry
A Confined Space is a space which is large enough for a worker to enter but has limited openings for entry and exit and is not intended for continuous employee occupancy. Entry is considered to have occurred as soon as any part of the entrant's body breaks the plane of an opening into the space. Therefore it is not permissible, for example, to take a quick breath and to put one's head into a vessel for a quick look without having an entry permit.