Sequence of hazards analysis methods for process safety manaagement

The ability to identify and risk rank hazards is fundamental to all process safety programs. If hazards are not identified, the risk to do with them cannot be eliminated or reduced. The articles and safety moments in this topic area describe various hazard identification techniques, including,

  • Hazard and Operability Studies (HAZOP),
  • Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA),
  • Layers of Protection Analysis (LOPA),  
  • Checklists, and
  • Fault Tree Analysis (FTA).

The sequence in which they can be carried out — moving from overview or concept level to detailed analysis — is discussed in the ebook Hazard Analysis.

A related topic area is Common Process Hazards.

Further information and guidance is provided in the articles, safety moments and other publications listed below.

Copyright © Ian Sutton. 2018. All Rights Reserved.

Fault Tree Analysis

Risk Analysis

Risk can be analyzed in one of two basic ways: inductively or deductively, that is either bottom-up or top-down.

In a deductive analysis a top-level system failure is postulated. The analyst then works backwards to deduce what combinations of events could have occurred for the system failure to have taken place (a detective solving a crime is thinking deductively). Fault tree analysis, the topic discussed in this article, is deductive.

Siting and Layout of Process Facilities


Siting and Layout: The words ‘siting’ and ‘layout’ are often used interchangeably, but, strictly speaking, they have different meanings. Siting is concerned with the location of a facility. For example, if a company is planning on building a new chemical plant its management may consider the relative merits of sites in Texas, Mexico or China. Layout, on the other hand, is to do with the locations of equipment, piping and buildings at the selected site and how they connect with one another.